...less medical jargon in a 'Quick Glance' format!
...There are over 150 forms of Arthritis. Arthritis R-S looks at 25 types.
Raynaud's Phenomenon: is a condition resulting from poor circulation in the fingers and toes. In a person with Raynaud's phenomenon, when his or her skin is exposed to cold or the person becomes emotionally upset, the blood vessels under the skin tighten and the blood flow slows. Hands and feet have fewer large blood vessels and, therefore, when this occurs, it is harder for the blood to keep flowing and these areas may turn blue because less oxygen is reaching the skin. The skin will also feel cold because less blood is reaching the skin to keep it warm.
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome: is a chronic neurological syndrome characterized by severe burning pain, pathological changes in bone and skin, excessive sweating, tissue swelling, and extreme sensitivity to touch.
Reiter's Syndrome: is a form of arthritis that affects the joints and involves inflammation of the eyes and the mucous membranes, such as those in the mouth, vagina, penis, and urinary tract. There are two forms of Reiter's syndrome. One occurs with sexually transmitted infections, and the other occurs after an intestinal infection.
Relapsing Polychondritis: is an uncommon and severe episodic inflammatory condition involving cartilaginous structures, predominantly those of the ear, nose, and laryngotracheobronchial tree. Other affected structures may include the eye, cardiovascular system, peripheral joints, middle ear, and inner ear.
Retrocalcaneal Bursitis: Pain at the posterior heel or ankle most commonly is caused by pathology at either the calcaneal insertion site of the Achilles tendon, or associated bursae. Two bursae are located just superior to the insertion of the Achilles tendon. Anterior or deep to the tendon is the retrocalcaneal bursa, which is located between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus. Posterior or superficial to the Achilles tendon is the subcutaneous calcaneal bursa, also called the Achilles bursa. This bursa is located between the skin and posterior aspect of the distal Achilles tendon. Inflammation of either or both of these bursae can cause pain at the posterior heel and ankle region.
Rheumatic Fever: Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease. It begins with a strep throat from streptococcal infection. It can affect many of the body's connective tissues, especially those of the heart, joints, brain or skin. Anyone can get acute rheumatic fever, but it usually occurs in children five to 15 years old. The rheumatic heart disease that results can last for life.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: is a chronic disease, mainly characterized by inflammation of the lining, or synovium, of the joints. It can lead to long-term joint damage, resulting in chronic pain, loss of function and disability.
Rheumatoid Vasculitis: is an unusual complication of longstanding, severe rheumatoid arthritis. The active vasculitis associated with rheumatoid disease occurs in about 1% of this patient population. RV is a beyond the joint rheumatoid arthritis and involves the small and medium-sized arteries in the body. In many of its disease features, RV resembles polyarteritis nodosa. Other common extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, such as inflammation in the sac surrounding the heart, inflammation in the lining of the lungs, and resulting in fibrosis or scarring of the lungs.
Sacroiliitis: is an inflammation of a joint formed by a group of vertebrae at the back of the pelvis. Patients are often ill, limping, in pain and showing a decreased range of motion, but the symptoms are still generally vague. This joint is encompassed in a large amount of ligamentous and fibrous tissue for added stability.
Sarcoidosis: is a disease that causes inflammation of the body's tissues. Inflammation is a basic response of the body to injury and usually causes reddened skin, warmth, swelling, and pain. Inflammation from sarcoidosis is different. In sarcoidosis, the inflammation produces small lumps in the tissues.
Scheuermann's Osteochondritis: is the deterioration of the end of a bone from lack of blood supply, with onset at about 12 years of age. It usually involves the seventh and tenth thoracic vertebrae, and presents with backache and spinal curvature. The disturbance affects both sexes, but males more often than females.
Scleroderma: is a symptom of a group of diseases that involve the abnormal growth of connective tissue, which supports the skin and internal organs. It is sometimes used, therefore, as an umbrella term for these disorders. In some forms of scleroderma, hard, tight skin is the extent of this abnormal process. In other forms, however, the problem goes much deeper, affecting blood vessels and internal organs, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys.
Septic Arthritis: Infective arthritis may represent a direct invasion of joint space by a variety of microorganisms, including a variety of bacteria, viruses, mycobacteria, and fungi. Reactive arthritis, a sterile inflammatory process, may be the consequence of an infectious process located somewhere else in the body. Although any infectious agent may cause arthritis, bacterial pathogens are the most rapidly destructive.
Shigella Arthritis: Shigella species are aerobic, nonmotile, glucose-fermenting, gram-negative rods that are highly contagious, causing diarrhea after ingestion of as few as 180 organisms. Shigella species cause damage by 2 mechanisms, invasion of the colonic epithelium, which is dependent on a plasmid-mediated virulence factor, and production of enterotoxin, which is not essential for colitis but enhances virulence. The organism is spread by fecal-oral contact; via infected food or water; during travel; or in long-term care facilities, day care centers, or nursing homes.
Shoulder-Hand Syndrome: is a condition that features a group of typical symptoms, including pain (often "burning" type), tenderness, and swelling of an extremity associated with varying degrees of sweating, warmth and/or coolness, flushing, discoloration, and shiny skin.
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: is an unusual disorder of the adolescent hip. It is not rare. For reasons that are not well understood, the ball at the upper end of the thigh bone slips off in a backward direction. This is due to weakness of the growth plate. Most often, it develops during periods of accelerated growth, shortly after the onset of puberty.
Spinal Stenosis: is a narrowing of spaces in the backbone that results in pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots. This disorder usually involves the narrowing of one or more of three areas of the spine: (1) the canal in the center of the spinal column through which the spinal cord and nerve roots run, (2) the canals at the base or roots of nerves branching out from the spinal cord, or (3) the openings between vertebrae through which nerves leave the spine and go to other parts of the body. The narrowing may involve a small or large area of the spine. Pressure on the lower part of the spinal cord or on nerve roots branching out from that area may give rise to pain or numbness in the legs. Pressure on the neck area of the spinal cord may produce similar symptoms in the shoulders, or even the legs.
Spondylolysis: usually affects the fifth lumbar vertebra in the lower back, and much less commonly, the fourth lumbar vertebra. It is a stress fracture in one of the bones that make up the spinal column, and it usually affects the fifth lumbar vertebra in the lower back, and much less commonly, the fourth lumbar vertebra. If the stress fracture weakens the bone so much that it is unable to maintain its proper position, the vertebra can start to shift out of place. If too much slippage occurs, the bones may begin to press on nerves and surgery may be necessary to correct the condition.
Stickler Syndrome: A characteristic feature of Stickler syndrome is a somewhat flattened facial appearance. This is caused by underdeveloped bones in the middle of the face, including the cheekbones and the bridge of the nose. A particular group of physical features, called Robin sequence, is common in children with Stickler syndrome. Robin sequence includes a U-shaped opening in the roof of the mouth with a tongue that is too large for the space formed by the small lower jaw. Children with a cleft palate are also prone to frequent ear infections and swallowing difficulties. Nearsightedness and hearing loss can also accompany the disease.
Subacute Cutaneous Lupus: is a nonscarring non–atrophy-producing light-sensitive skin condition. SCLE may occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, and deficiency of the second component of complement, or it may be drug induced. Some patients also have the lesions of discoid lupus erythematosus, and some may develop small vessel vasculitis.
Sydenham's Chorea: is an infectious disease of the central nervous system commonly occurring between 5 and 15 years of age that is characterized by involuntary purposeless contractions of the muscles of the trunk and extremities, initially in one limb; face movements that simulate smirking expressions, anxiety; impairment of memory and sometimes of speech. Besides in rheumatic fever, it has also been reported in association with hyperthyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus and some other common erythemas.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: is a long-lasting rheumatic disease which affects joints, muscles and other parts of the body. Lupus involves the immune system's response to kill foreign agents, virus, bacteria. Systemic lupus erythematosus involves chronic inflammation that can affect many parts of the body, including the heart, lungs, skin, joints, blood-forming organs, kidneys and nervous system.