Olecranon Bursitis: causes fluid to collect in a sac that lies behind the elbow, called the olecranon bursa. A bursa is a slippery, sac-like tissue that normally allows smooth movement around bony prominences, such as the point behind the elbow. When a bursa becomes inflamed for some reason, the sac fills with inflammatory fluid. This can cause pain and a noticeable swelling behind the elbow.
Osgood-Schlatter's Disease: usually occurs in teenagers. It causes pain and swelling just below the knee. It is not serious and usually goes away in time. Overuse of the quadriceps muscle can cause repeated stress and strain on the attachment of the patella ligament to the growing tibia. This can cause inflammation and pain at the site of the ligament attachment. In some cases, a small flake of bone is pulled off the tibia by the pulling ligament. Healing bone then forms which may cause a hard bony bump to develop.
Osteoarthritis: The most common type of arthritis is OA. It affects nearly 21 million people in the United States. The likelihood of OA increases with age. In people over 65, osteoarthritis is the most frequently cited reason for limiting physical activity, and nearly 75% of those over 65 will experience it. OA is characterized by pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion in the affected joint. While inflammation is not directly caused by OA, it is not uncommon for arthritic joints to swell due to erosion of the joint tissue. OA may also create boney enlargements around the joints.
Osteochondromatosis: is a non-cancerous condition in which the synovial lining of a joint, bursa, or tendon sheath grows excessively, and fragments may break off from the synovial surface into the joint. In this location and nourished by synovial fluid, the fragments may grow, calcify, or ossify.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta: is a genetic disorder characterized by bones that break easily, often from little or no apparent cause. There are at least four recognized forms of the disorder, representing a range of severities. A person may have just a few or as many as several hundred fractures in a lifetime. Signs of the disease can include bones that break easily, loose joints and muscle weakness, a bluish tint to the whites of the eyes, a triangular face, a tendency toward spinal curvature and brittle teeth. Symptoms of the mildest forms of this condition can be confused with evidence of child abuse.
Osteomyelitis:is a bone infection that is often caused by a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. Depending on how the bone becomes infected and the age of the person, other types of bacteria can cause it, too. In kids and teens, osteomyelitis usually affects the long bones of the arms and legs.
Osteonecrosis: a condition in which part of the bone is no longer alive and cannot regenerate itself due to a lack of blood supply, sometimes following a traumatic injury to the bone. The juvenile version of osteonecrosis is known as PerthesDisease and usually afflicts children from ages four through twelve.
Osteoporosis: is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. If not prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can progress painlessly until a bone breaks. These broken bones, also known as fractures, occur typically in the hip, spine, and wrist.
Paget's Disease of Bone: is a chronic disorder that can result in enlarged and misshapen bones. The excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue causes affected bone to weaken resulting in bone pain, misshapen bones, fractures, and arthritis in the joints near the affected bones. Paget’s disease typically is localized, affecting just one or a few bones, as opposed to osteoporosis, which affects all the bones in the body. In most cases, scientists suspect that environmental factors play a role.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: is a common knee problem. If you have this condition, you feel pain under and around your kneecap. The pain can get worse when you're active or when you sit for a long time. You can have the pain in only one knee, or you can have pain in both knees.
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis: is a joint problem that usually affects the hip or knee. It can also occur in the shoulder, ankle, elbow, hand or foot. When you have PVNS, the lining of a joint becomes swollen and grows. This growth harms the bone around the joint. The lining also makes extra fluid that can cause swelling and make the joint hurt.
Piriformis Syndrome: is a condition in which the muscle we use to rotate our thigh irritates the sciatic nerve, causing pain in the buttocks and referring pain along the course of the sciatic nerve. This referred pain, called "sciatica", often goes down the back of the thigh and/or into the lower back. Patients generally complain of pain deep in the buttocks, which is made worse by sitting, climbing stairs, or performing squats.
Plantar Fasciitis: which may cause the heel to hurt, feel hot or swell, is inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thin layer of tough tissue supporting the arch of the foot. Repeated microscopic tears of the plantar fascia cause pain. Sometimes plantar fasciitis is called "heel spurs", but this is not always accurate, since bony growths on the heel may or may not be a factor.
Polyarteritis Nodosa: is an inflammation throughout an entire arterial wall. It is sometimes also called “systemic necrotizing vasculitis”, but this term is non-specific as other forms of vasculitis also have systemic and necrotizing features.
Polymyalgia Rheumatica: is a rheumatic disorder that is associated with moderate to severe muscle pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulder, and hip area. Stiffness is most noticeable in the morning. This disorder may develop rapidly--in some patients, overnight. In other people, polymyalgia rheumatica develops more gradually.
Polymyositis: is a disease of muscle featuring inflammation of the muscle fibers. It begins when white blood cells, the immune cells of inflammation, spontaneously invade muscles. The muscles affected are mostly those closest to the trunk or torso. This results in weakness which can be severe. It is a chronic illness with periods of increased symptoms, called flares or relapses, and decreased symptoms, known as remissions.
Popliteal Cysts: is a fluid collection behind the knee. This cyst may be formed by the connection of a normal lubricating fluid sac with the knee joint. This type is more common in children. The condition can also be caused by the herniation of the knee joint capsule out into the back of the knee, which is more common in adults. This type of Baker's cyst is commonly associated with a tear in the meniscal cartilage of the knee. In older adults, this condition is frequently associated with degenerative arthritis of the knee.
Posterior Tibial Tendonitis: is an uncommon problem of the foot. When this tendon is inflamed in posterior tibial tendonitis or if the posterior tibial tendon ruptures, it can cause serious problems. Most commonly, patients with posterior tibial tendonitis complain of pain in the inside of the foot and ankle, and occasionally have problems associated with an unstable gait.
Pott's Disease: Pott’s disease is the name given to TB of the spine. TB starts in the lungs but can travel to any organ or structure of the body. The vertebrae are the most often afflicted sites of extra- pulmonary lesions.
Prepatellar Bursitis: constant friction irritates a small lubricating sac (bursa) located just in front of the kneecap. The bursa enables the kneecap to move smoothly under the skin. If the bursa becomes inflamed, it fills with fluid and causes swelling at the top of the knee.
Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: is an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by progressive calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers in the skin, the retina, and the cardiovascular system. Typically, cutaneous lesions begin in childhood, but, because of their asymptomatic nature, they are not noted until adolescence. In some individuals, skin lesions do not develop until later in life.